提交 statement of purpose 或 research proposal 的時候，如果想要提到別人的研究，但是由於有字數限制，又不希望寫很詳細的引用文獻資訊，內文中可以只提author name + paper title或是 author name + journal name，或是說明「這是誰發表的跟什麼題目有關的論文」，可以不用寫完整的出版社、期刊號、頁碼等等詳細的資訊。
Experts are still in the early stages of understanding the reasons behind the rise in cases. The authors of the study, published in BMJ Oncology, say poor diets, alcohol and tobacco use, physical inactivity and obesity are likely to be among the factors.
上面這一段有提到研究是發表於 BMJ Oncology 期刊。
“Since 1990, the incidence and deaths of early onset cancers have substantially increased globally,” the report says. “Encouraging a healthy lifestyle, including a healthy diet, the restriction of tobacco and alcohol consumption and appropriate outdoor activity, could reduce the burden of early onset cancer.”
作者名稱沒有直接寫出來，只寫 the authors of the study，但是有寫研究發表的地方。
Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of cancer in adults under the age of 50 has been rising in various parts of the world over the last few decades. The latest study, led by the University of Edinburgh in Scotland and Zhejiang University School of Medicine in Hangzhou, China, was the first of its kind to examine the issue on a global scale and the risk factors for younger adults.
Dr Claire Knight, a senior health information manager at Cancer Research UK, which was not involved in the study, said it was not yet clear what was driving the trend and urged caution.
“However alarming this might seem, cancer is primarily a disease of older age, with the majority of new cancer cases worldwide being diagnosed in those aged 50 and above,” she said. “We need more research to examine the causes of early onset cancer for specific cancer types, like our BCAN-RAY study that is looking at new ways to identify younger women at higher risk of breast cancer.
上面這一塊引用評價的學者 Claire Knight 說的話。
注意到 Guardian 文章最後並沒有文獻參考，文章之中也沒有 (Knight, 2014) 這一類的出版資訊，所有研究背景資訊都是嵌在文章之中。
Dr Fiona Hu
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