二次大戰之後，全世界幾乎都是從自由貿易前進，但是最近幾年開始愈來愈多反對的聲音，像是英國脫歐，表面上Theresa May是說要 the freest possible trade with European countries，實際上脫歐就是脫離歐盟區的 free trade。美國總統川普也是反對自由貿易。甚至連WTO近期內都有進口限制。
What Ricardo's theory suggested was that all countries engaging in trade could be better off. But his idea could not address the question of whether trade could create losers as well as winners within countries.
文章提到一個例子：中國低勞工成本，直接影響美國的 low-skilled workers，因為中國的廉價勞工是直接跟美國的low-skilled workers競爭。意思就是同樣是美國人，low-skilled workers感受到的是自由貿易的負面效果，而其它非low-skilled workers族群則是看到正面效果。
文章最後從 Compensating lowers這個大標題開始，是說明這些國家如何能夠照顧只感受到自由貿易負面效果的族群的利益。可以用社會福利。但是問題是，社會福利做得夠不夠？是否能夠完全平衡掉負面效果？心理上的影響呢？就如英國的 Bank of England's Mark Carney 說的，失去工作之後，失去了 dignity of work，這又要如何補償？
sacred cow: this refers to how the cow is considered sacred in India; the whole section refers to how free trade is considered essential after WWII
to run aground: this originally refers to a plane crashing, thus it is 'running aground,' here it refers to an idea not working anymore
the case for trade without government imposed barriers: the case for something means the argument or support for something
underpins much of the argument: to underpin means to support
to produce more of one good: 'good' here means 'product' as in a manufactured or produced product, usually used in the plural form 'goods'
both end up better off: both countries will be economically better than before
look askance: look suspiciously at something, askance is an adv.
the home market: the domestic market
there are gains of course: gains is a noun, meaning something that is gained or achieved
"It makes no more sense to be protectionist because other countries have tariffs than it would to block up our harbours because other countries have rocky coasts." = It makes no more sense to do this than it would (make sense) to do that. = "It makes no more sense to be protectionist because other countries have tariffs than it would to block up our harbours because other countries have rocky coasts." = This sentence means that it does not make sense to block harbours because other countries have rocky coasts. Similarly, it does not make sense to be protectionist because other countries have tariffs.
economies of scale: 規模經濟
the associated specialisation: this 'specialisation' refers to the 'economies of scale' mentioned in the previous sentence; firms would specialise in producing certain products because of the 'economies of scale'
aggravated or prolonged it: 'it' refers to the Great Depression of the 1930s; aggravate means to make worse, prolong means to make a time period longer
reciprocal concessions: 互相讓步, 'better access to others' markets in return for opening your own' is an explanation of 'reciprocal concessions'
"Adjustment in local labour markets is remarkably slow, with wages and labour-force participation rates remaining depressed and unemployment rates remaining elevated for at least a full decade after the China trade shock commences. = 這一句主詞是adjustment，動詞是is。With + N. + Ving. and (with) N. + Ving。類似的句型有：With him looking at me, I felt very uncomfortable.
churn: 這是一種製作奶油的方法，把牛奶放在一個桶子裡不斷用木椿攪拌，這裡 greater job churning是指不斷換工作，像在攪拌工作職位
Dr Fiona Hu
Dr Fiona 親手撰寫教材