英國脫歐以及川普當選的共同點是什麼？他們都雇用同一間big data分析公司--Cambridge Analytica。
這間公司怎麼來的？Michal Kosinski是一位波蘭的學生，2008年他到劍橋攻讀博士學位。但是他說 Cambridge Analytica跟他沒有關係。
這個心理測驗法一般是叫OCEAN，或是叫The Big Five，因為它會測驗五個特色：
openness (how open you are to new experiences?)
conscientiousness (how much of a perfectionist are you?)
extroversion (how sociable are you?)
agreeableness (how considerate and cooperative you are?)
neuroticism (are you easily upset?)
The strength of their modeling was illustrated by how well it could predict a subject’s answers. Kosinski continued to work on the models incessantly: before long, he was able to evaluate a person better than the average work colleague, merely on the basis of ten Facebook “likes.” Seventy “likes” were enough to outdo what a person’s friends knew, 150 what their parents knew, and 300 “likes” what their partner knew. More “likes” could even surpass what a person thought they knew about themselves. On the day that Kosinski published these findings, he received two phone calls. The threat of a lawsuit and a job offer. Both from Facebook.
這個研究後來怎麼會變成造成脫歐跟川普當選的big data祕密武器？這是因為Kosinski跟一位名為 Aleksandr Kogan的教授合作，這位教授跟一間election management company有合作關係。
這間公司叫 SCL, or Strategic Communication Laboratories. 這間公司很神祕，但看來來頭不小。
What Kosinski did not know at the time: SCL is the parent of a group of companies. Who exactly owns SCL and its diverse branches is unclear, thanks to a convoluted corporate structure, the type seen in the UK Companies House, the Panama Papers, and the Delaware company registry. Some of the SCL offshoots have been involved in elections from Ukraine to Nigeria, helped the Nepalese monarch against the rebels, whereas others have developed methods to influence Eastern European and Afghan citizens for NATO. And, in 2013, SCL spun off a new company to participate in US elections: Cambridge Analytica.
文章接下來說明 Cambridge Analytica如何使用big data於他們的競選活動上。
These “dark posts”—sponsored Facebook posts that can only be seen by users with specific profiles—included videos aimed at African-Americans in which Hillary Clinton refers to black men as predators, for example.
Big data可以用在行銷商業產品，也可以用在行銷政治理念。如果同學想試一下，可以到以下這個連結的最後一個項目 You are what you like: Facebook persona test。
Dr Fiona Hu